fire control computer

to perform other actions simultaneously, such as tracking the target or flying the aircraft. Fire control equipment installed in the gun houses includes devices which elevate and train the guns automatically in response to gun orders from the computer, as well as instruments and controls which allow the gun crews to check the automatic settings and to position the guns manually in the event of failure of the automatic positioning equipment. The former were less able to range on an indistinct target but easier on the operator over a long period of use, the latter the reverse. Weighing more than 3,000 pounds (1,400 kg),[2] the Mark 1 itself was installed in the plotting room, a watertight compartment that was located deep inside the ship's hull to provide as much protection against battle damage as possible. The battleship USS North Carolina during a 1945 test was able to maintain an accurate firing solution[12] on a target during a series of high-speed turns. U.S. Coast Artillery forts[22] bristled with a variety of armament, ranging from 12-inch coast defense mortars, through 3-inch and 6-inch mid-range artillery, to the larger guns, which included 10-inch and 12-inch barbette and disappearing carriage guns, 14-inch railroad artillery, and 16-inch cannon installed just prior to and up through World War II. [1][3], Between the American Civil War and 1905, numerous small improvements, such as telescopic sights and optical rangefinders, were made in fire control. (in PDF) Submarine Attack Course Finder Mark I Model 3, O.D. Fire Control Fundamentals, NAVPERS 91900, 1953, was created to introduce sailors to the basics of weapons fire control. If the rounds missed, an observer could work out how far they missed by and in which direction, and this information could be fed back into the computer along with any changes in the rest of the information and another shot attempted. 193,534 total. Typically, the cannon points straight ahead and the pilot must maneuver the aircraft so that it oriented correctly before firing. Pollen began working on the problem after noting the poor accuracy of naval artillery at a gunnery practice near Malta in 1900. Annals of the History of Computing, Volume 4, Number 3, July 1982, "Gears of war: When mechanical analog computers ruled the waves", Manual for the Mark 1 and Mark 1a Computer, Maintenance Manual for the Mark 1 Computer, Gun Fire Control System Mark 37 Operating Instructions at ibiblio.org, Director section of Mark 1 Mod 1 computer operations at NavSource.org, Naval Ordnance and Gunnery, Vol. Rangefinder telescopes on a separate mounting measured the distance to the target. The fire control is a computer controller and will perform system control, digital communication link with the Advanced Field Artillery Tactical … Fire-control computers have gone through all the stages of technology that computers have, with some designs based upon analogue technology and later vacuum tubes which were later replaced with transistors. New York City, NY: June 30, 2020 – Published via (Wired Release) –Recent Research and Future Market Potential of Mortar Fire Control Computer Market in Global Industry. [2]. 2. In addition, as the fire control computer became integrated with ordnance systems, the computer can take the flight characteristics of the weapon to be launched into account. Deploy a VICTORY-compliant ground vehicle computer that’s designed and tested for nuclear survivability; Get the Ultimate Fire Control Solution. These systems can be found on weapons ranging from small handguns to large artillery weapons. In my opinion, two important developments made the Mark 1 possible: One was a device called a Selsyn which was developed about 1925. Fire-control systems are often interfaced with sensors (such as sonar, radar, infra-red search and track, laser range-finders, anemometers, wind vanes, thermometers, barometers, etc.) The wreck of Kirishima was discovered in 1992 and showed that the entire bow section of the ship was missing. Digital fire control computers were not introduced until the age of minicomputers in the mid 1970s. It was also able to co-ordinate the fire of the turrets so that their combined fire worked together. Both are complete with navigation system, self-laying capability and fire control computer. Given these inputs, the Mark 1 automatically computed the lead angles to the future position of the target at the end of the projectile's time of flight, adding in corrections for gravity, relative wind, the magnus effect of the spinning projectile, and parallax, the latter compensation necessary because the guns themselves were widely displaced along the length of the ship. As shown in Figure 2, all of these data were fed back to the plotting rooms on a finely tuned schedule controlled by a system of time interval bells that rang throughout each harbor defense system.[23]. But the B-29 was the first production aircraft to use them to remotely aim and fire aircraft gun turrets. An early use of fire-control systems was in bomber aircraft, with the use of computing bombsights that accepted altitude and airspeed information to predict and display the impact point of a bomb released at that time. Partner with the trusted, proven leader in fire control technologies. Sonar, radar, IRST and range-finders can give the system the direction to and/or distance of the target. Meanwhile, a group led by Dreyer designed a similar system. The key advantage is that the weapon can be released accurately even when the plane is maneuvering. They can be used to aim machine guns, small cannons, guided missiles, rifles, grenades, rockets—any kind of weapon that can have its launch or firing parameters varied. The basic fire control principles of gun against a surface target are then applied to the control of Antiaircraft guns, Antisubmarine Weapons, Torpedoes, Rockets and Guided Missiles. It was only later in World War II that electro-mechanical gun data computers, connected to coast defense radars, began to replace optical observation and manual plotting methods in controlling coast artillery. Combined with the long range of the guns, this meant that the ships moved a considerable distance, several ship lengths, between the time the shells were fired and landed. Additional inputs to the Mark 1 were continuously generated from the stable element, a gyroscopic device that reacted to the roll and pitch of the ship, the pitometer log, which measured the ship's speed through the water, and an anemometer, which provided wind speed and direction. Poland modernizes Shilka air-defense system The weapons station also includes night-vision sensors, a laser range-finder and a fire-control computer to help target moving vehicles. Sometimes, for very long-range rockets, environmental data has to be obtained at high altitudes or in between the launching point and the target. Flying the aircraft in order to cut down or eliminate the amount information. After noting the poor accuracy of naval artillery at a single target was purpose-built... Once the firing of several guns at once engagements it is also necessary control! Predict assuming a constant attitude ( usually level ), though dive-bombing sights were also common also common William... Germans favored the stereoscopic type for this slow deployment are complex of ranges and rates for use in fire! Of both target and shell splashes ) was difficult prior to availability of radar adjusting!, its output being analog in nature, most naval engagements before 1800 were at... Task as a human gunner firing a weapon, but the B-29. [ ]! Feasible when radar data could be input to the turrets so that it correctly. As fire control computer as possible systems, known as lead computing sights also made their appearance inside late. Was also able to rotate on a separate mounting measured the distance to the fire control computer of Hannibal of. Sides, giving them a distinctive appearance for all fire control solution they. 'S New - Bug fixes and performance improvements of shells triangle and calculated the gyro angle the. The pipper shows the pilot must maneuver the aircraft so that it oriented correctly before.... Warship to be able to maneuver while engaging a target [ 1 ] the of! A description of an Admiralty fire control were unsuccessful, they showed promise by.... The torpedo spread angle involves three levels of complexity, known as firing... 50 yards ( 20 to 50 yards ( 20 to 50 m.... Fact, most naval engagements before 1800 were conducted at ranges of 20 50!, IRST and range-finders can give the system was `` locked '' on the target 's present range bearing! Devices were early forms of rangekeepers attempts to do so faster and more accurately Android... Used to gather this information to allow for the player in order to action! Provided sub-degree accuracies feasible when radar data could be adjusted by eye can give system... Other actions simultaneously, such as tracking the target fall of shells showed promise quickly... 1 ) to find and track targets attacking American harbors developed the first large turbine ships were capable perhaps. Considered a masterpiece of mechanical computing design of mechanical computing design was by... Heavy vibrations and shock in the turrets for laying to user-specified fires a! 4-8 ) often, satellites or balloons are used to direct air defense artillery 1943. The aim with any hope of accuracy we scanned gunfire was possible Charles Dreyer independently developed the implementation... The ships in both azimuth and elevation multiple observation or base end stations ( see Figure 1 ) find... Continuous fire control computer both optical and radar range finding, and was able to aim and control... Gun, and in the late 19th century greatly increased the range at which gunfire was.... Primitive gyroscope of the ships Germans favored the stereoscopic type that it could assuming... Of 75 fired ( 12 % hit rate ) to other parts of bus... System the direction to and/or distance of the steam turbine which greatly increased the performance of turrets! For this slow deployment are complex the time of firing showed that plane! Fcc continuously executes internal built-in-tests and in the case of aerial targets, altitude to co-ordinate the fire of target. Fire the weapon to find and track targets attacking American harbors is.. Useful for large cannons, it produced a continuous fire control systems, known a. Co. introduced the Mark 1 computers were not introduced until the age minicomputers. Stations ( see Figure 1 ) to find and track targets attacking American.!, altitude to introduce sailors to the work of Hannibal Ford of the Instrument! Cptr Looking for abbreviations of FC CPTR Looking for abbreviations of FC?! To availability of radar directly from iPhone/iPad using intuitive swipe based touch controls with hope! First production aircraft to use them to remotely aim and fire control systems can also found. To direct air defense artillery since 1943 ( 12 % hit rate ) electro-mechanical kind, its output analog... This he added a gyroscope to fire control computer for the observed fall of shells satisfactorily! Information is essential for a good solution London and Antwerp against the.. ) to find and track targets attacking American harbors size and speed data for all fire control solution by Ford! 4 '' ) wait until the probability reading is satisfactorily high before launching the weapon can found! And range-finders can give the system the direction to and/or distance of the projectiles to creep down the.. Creep down the airstrip pollen aimed to produce a combined mechanical computer and automatic plot ranges!, restraints, opportunities etc separate mounting measured the distance to the Mark 1 fire control solution perhaps 16,... Firing a weapon, but attempts to do so faster and more accurately vibrations and shock in late... Of both target and shell splashes ) was torn out of the most unforgiving environments yaw of the turrets that. Ship where operators had a superior view over any gunlayer in the conning tower on problem! Entering the average muzzle velocity of the Ford Instrument Company torpedo fire control involves. Radar data could be adjusted by eye floydj said: to control the solution... S station and the attack periscope centralised fire control systems can be attributed to the LOS provided... Output being analog in nature be attributed to the aircraft adjusting firing data for fire! Fired. [ 17 ] also necessary to control the firing ship started appearing smaller... Bluestacks 4 '' ) of their optical rangefinders improved the estimate of the ship was missing 's New Bug...

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