organization of semantic knowledge

These include lexical/semantic factors such as frequency, and contextual factors such as whether the target is produced as a single word or in a sentence. One of the deepest mysteries of the function of cortex is that neural processing times are only about one hundred times as fast as the fastest response times for complex behavior. It allows for machine-actionable description of the structure of these knowledge organization systems (KOS) and provides an excellent The normal control subjects demonstrated automatic activation for both concrete nouns and motion verbs. One form was entitled "remembrances", the other "memoria". Good sparing of language functions allowed thorough neuropsychological testing. Tacit knowledge known as “know-what”, is easy to identify, store, retrieve and disseminate. © 2008-2020 ResearchGate GmbH. Production of nouns was highly facilitated by provision of a semantically relevant sentence frame. A detailed consideration of this model has several implications for the underlying anatomy and physiology. The results demonstrate that rated prototypicality is related to both the familiarity of the concept and its distance from the average of the exemplars within the same category (the category centroid). a CiteSeer-like, Language is the most evolved and complex of cognitive functions. More coherent categories play a privileged role in the organization of our semantic knowledge; coherent cat- egories are the ones that are most easily learned and represented (8, 15, 16). received increasing research interests in recent years. The patient fails to name objects on confrontation, but readily explains or demonstrates their use, proving that he recognizes the object but cannot produce the verbal symbol. A case of complete Kluver-Bucy syndrome is reported. It shows that a knowledge-based hierarchy is a natural way to organize the acquisition of knowledge when matching problems with those who know how to solve them is costly. Beitrag zur Lehre vom Bewusstsein des eigenen Körpers, Complete Kluver-Bucy syndrome following Herpes Simplex type II encephalitis[SYNDROME DE KLUVER-BUCY HUMAIN COMPLET APRES UNE ENCEPHALITE A HERPES SIMPLEX TYPE 2], Interaction between vision and language in category-specific semantic impairment, The oyster with four legs: a neuropsychological study on the interaction of visual and semantic information, Cortical connections and parallel processing: Structure and function. In more recent times, our knowledge of these hemispheric asymmetries has been increased by new lines of research which have investigated: (a) asymmetries in emotional behaviors in animals; (b) neuroanatomical asymmetries in structures playing a critical role in various aspects of emotions, and (c) behavioral and emotional disorders in patients with degenerative brain diseases, temporal lobe epilepsy, and abnormal kinds of emotion regulations The popular view of this type of knowledge is a form of knowledge encoded in organizational practices, procedures and routines. Semantic knowledge Blindness Supramodality Category-based organization fMRI Multivoxel pattern analysis 1. He was mainly influenced by the ideas of Reiff and Scheers, who in 1959 made the distinction between two primary forms of memory. In contrast, embedded knowledge, a substantial part of organizational knowledge, is formal or informal knowledge that is locked in archives, processes and internal practices waiting to be extracted. An advantage for artefacts is typically associated with an aetiology of Herpes simplex virus encephalitis (which predominantly affects temporolimbic structures) whilst the opposite pattern more often follows damage to frontoparietal regions, ... Several clinical observations of aphasics support this assumption. Compared with abstract of a specific paper written by authors themselves, The present survey develops a previous position paper, in which I suggested that the multimodal semantic impairment observed in advanced stages of semantic dementia is due to the joint disruption of pictorial and verbal representations, subtended by the right and left anterior temporal lobes, rather than to the loss of a unitary, amodal semantic system. Since Pick, very few cases of autotopagnosia have been reported.3-8 Nevertheless, this symptom is regularly mentioned in all discussions on disorders of corporeal awareness because it seems to represent the most complete and convincing example of disorientation of the human body and, thus, it apparently provides strong support to the reality of the concept of "body schema." implicit semantics behind reference indices are mined and organized to improve accessibility of scientific papers. See: Your data is automatically structured for search engines to recognize and show to your prospects in their search queries. Numerous variables have been used in previous attempts to account for the performance of aphasic patients on naming tasks. More specifically, Linked Data is the set of recommended best practice for exposing, sharing, and connecting data, information, and knowledge on the Semantic Web using Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) and Resource Description Framework (RDF). Then, the term was co-opted by Artificial Intelligence researchers to represent computational models for automated reasoning. The printed version of notes will be distributed at the symposium. Our paper does not aim to be a comprehensive survey on MIQCPs, but rather, to be supplementary to other survey papers in literature. Semantic Knowledge Discovery, Organization and Use November, 14 and 15, 2008 (Friday and Saturday) Warren Weaver Hall, New York University. During recent years, its study has largely benefited from new medical imaging technologies among which positron emission tomography (PET), allowing for direct observation of in vivo human brain activity. Semantic knowledge is organized such that it affords meaningful and adaptive inferences (e.g., apples and oranges are fruit and therefore can play similar functional roles). Tentatively, Case 2 is described as being more morphologically impaired but less syntactically impaired than Case 1, while neither has damage to a central language processor. The syntactic category effects could be proven (by hierarchical log-linear analysis) not to be an artefact of imageability differences between verbs, adjectives and nouns. The neural substrate can be interpreted as a commitment to data structures and algorithms that compute invariants fast enough to explain the behavioral response times. However, providing a consistent Semantic-Web style explicit representation of an organization’s data semantics is only a first step for leveraging organizational knowledge. category are lost before more general superordinate knowledge. When it is individual, knowledge shows an individual's ability to demonstrate judgment in a particular situation. A multiple single-case strategy revealed not only individuals with consistent advantages for. In one, the patient appears to have a problem saying the word while in the second he appears to have a problem knowing the word desired. based on the ontology. On the contrary, according to the second model, proposed by Allport (1985) and Jackendoff (1987) and developed byDamasio (1989Damasio ( , 1990), We constructed a test battery in which subjects were requested to recognize the same persons (well-known at the national level) through their faces and voices, evaluating familiarity and identifica, We organize a Special Issue in the journal "Brain Sciences" on "Emotions and the Right Hemisphere". to provide a comprehensive and meaningful guidance for users. Functional-anatomical correlations from cross-sectional analyses, A selective Impairment in the Phonological Output Lexicon, The evaluation of sources of knowledge underlying different semantic categories, IMPAIRED PHONOLOGICAL READING IN PRIMARY DEGENERATIVE DEMENTIA, Automatic semantic priming of nouns and verbs in patients with Alzheimer's disease, Contrasting Cases of Italian Agrammatic Aphasia without comprehension disorder, Neural Representation and Neural Computation, Störung der Orienterung am eigenen Körper. However, if semantic knowledge about objects contributes to visual working memory capacity, then it follows that age-related increases in semantic knowledge may also contribute to improvements in visual working memory capacity over development. Some of the most important problems concerning the clinical presentation, the structure, and the mechanisms of the semantic disintegration, as well as the categorical organization of semantic memory, are raised and investigated first in aphasia. that match the following scope of the Special Issue are still welcome! Specifically, the results of our analyses (1) resolve two conflicting claims regarding the relative ratio of sensory to other kinds of attributes in living vs. nonliving concepts; (2) offer new information regarding the types of features—across different domains—that distinguish concepts from their category coordinates ; and (3) corroborate some previous claims of higher intercorrelations between features of living things than those of artefacts. We also tried to check the influence of age and stimulus modality on these evaluations of the ‘sources of knowledge’ underlying different conceptual categories. The neuroanatomical substrate of this distinction also remains a subject of debate. The troubles usually described in Kluver-Bucy syndrome as psychic blindness, colour agnosia, prosopagnosia, auditive and tactile agnosia were present. The Organization of Semantic Memory. The semantic memory focuses much on the factual and conceptual knowledge about the world and the way it expressed in terms of words. In this chapter we explore the consequences that brain-style processing may have on theories of cognition. Cultural knowledge refers to being familiar with various cultural characteristics, including history, moral values, belief systems, history, and social norms. On one hand, it is commonly thought that, This papers provides two contributions to the problem of Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM): First we discuss properties of the problem itself and of the intended semantics of an uncertain map representation, with the main idea of "representing certainty of relations despite the uncertainty of positions". This includes knowledge about the language and conceptual information. Finding Hidden Semantics Behind Reference Linkages : An Ontological Approach for Scientific Digital... [Contribution of positron-emission tomography to the study of language], Semidefinite Approaches for MIQCP: Convex Relaxations and Practical Methods, Simultaneous Localization and Mapping - A Discussion. In Khosrow-Pour D.B.A., M. Prof. Dr. Guido Gainotti in the context of other fields of investigation such as cognitive neuropsychology. These patients produce a rambling, noninformative output, containing many words but conveying comparatively little information. The influence of age was checked by comparing results obtained on our group of elderly subjects with those obtained in a previous study, conducted with the same methodology on a sample of young students, whereas the influence of stimulus modality was assessed by presenting the stimuli in the verbal modality to 50 subjects and in the pictorial modality to 50 other subjects. A 42 year-old man developed Herpes Simplex type II (H.S.V. This is shown to comply to the uncertainty and space requirements. The main goals of the present review are (a) to survey a larger set of data, in order to confirm the differences in conceptual representations at the level of the right and left hemispheres, (b) to examine if language-mediated information plays a greater role in left hemisphere semantic knowledge than sensory-motor information in right hemisphere conceptual knowledge, and (c) to discuss the models that could explain both the differences in conceptual representations at the hemispheric level and the prevalence of the left hemisphere language-mediated semantic knowledge over the right hemisphere perceptually based conceptual representations. This selective impairment of phonological reading in the context of partly preserved semantic abilities was interpreted as confirmation of the dissociability of language functions in primary degenerative dementia. Moreover, the typical distribution of neuropathology associated with AD may put motion verbs at risk, particularly given the neuroanatomical considerations suggested by recent positron emission tomography (PET) studies. The idea of semantic memory was first introduced following a conference in 1972 between Endel Tulving, of the University of Toronto, and W. Donaldson on the role of organization in human memory. PROTOTYPICALITY, DISTINCTIVENESS, AND INTERCORRELATION: ANALYSES OF THE SEMANTIC ATTRIBUTES OF LIVING AND NONLIVING CONCEPTS, Category specific semantic loss in dementia of Alzheimer's type Functional–anatomical correlations from cross-sectional analyses, Category specific semantic loss in dementia of Alzheimer's type. From this perspective, knowledge becomes an organizational asset that can be managed, shared with partners or provided as a service to others. The cerebral cortex is a rich and diverse structure that is the basis of intelligent behavior. Introduction: The first clinical and experimental studies dealing with hemispheric asymmetries in comprehension, experience, and expression of emotions had been conducted in patients with focal brain lesions or in normal subjects investigated with special experimental procedures. Levels of analysis are not independent in connectionist models, and the dependencies between levels provide an opportunity to co-evolve theories at all levels. Propose a knowledge flow-based semantic organization structure to organize the learning resource, which can support new types of knowledge services. Main features of the semantic disorders observed in Alzheimer's disease are discussed also discussed in the chapter. and citation anchor context of scientific papers. We cope with our ever-changing world by comparing new objects or experiences with those with which we are familiar, identifying patterns and categorizing what is new into our existing frame of reference. Anomia is a state in which a person has a problem with word-finding. This paper explores the hypothesis that an important part of the cortex can be modeled as a connectionist computer that is especially suited for parallel problem solving. 5. They had suggested the models of a different hemispheric specialization and of a general right hemisphere dominance for emotions. These initiatives may also expand externally over time and include partners and customers. The Categorical Organization of Semantic and Lexical Knowledge in the Brain.pdf. It has been proposed that words are stored in a functional structure which consists of a semantic system and modality-specific input and output lexicons. This computer can be thought of as computing hierarchies of sensorimotor invariants.

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